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Judgment: The son had been born in Poland and brought to England by the mother. She now appealed from a return order made under the 1980 Hague Convention. Moylan LJ's view was that the deputy High Court judge hearing the case had not engaged sufficiently with the factors required to determine the issue of habitual residence, and it was unclear whether he had considered where the son was habitually resident at any date other than one particular month. His analysis had an undue focus on the mother's intentions and the question of whether she had formed an intention to stay permanently in England. Peter Jackson LJ and Newey LJ agreed. The father's application under the 1980 Convention would have to be reheard, unless the parents could come to an agreement.

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